This page explains how to place various mathematical characters into HTML documents. A 1999 version of this document is available here and a 2005 version here. The symbols have been grouped into the following categories:
Operation Symbols |
Relation Symbols |
Arrows and Brackets |
Greek Symbols |
Miscellaneous Symbols |
Update (1 Sep 2009): In this version the Symbol FONT FACE TAG method has been eliminated because they are no longer reliable.
Update (19 Mar 2007): Additional character entities
INTRODUCTION
There are several ways to add these symbols to your pages. I will omit consideration of symbols which appear on the keyboard unless, like &, they have a special HTML meaning. Of course, for any symbol, a .gif image can be created and the image displayed using the <img> tag. I will omit consideration of this strategy as well. In the tables below two codes will be given for displaying a character: the HTML numerical code and a special HTML literal code (where available).
One more thing. To form superscripts or subscripts use the <SUP> or <SUB> tags.
BROWSER TEST: To view symbols with numeric codes above 255 and perhaps some literal code symbols the browser character encoding must be set to unicode (UTF-8).
If the following string of symbols cannot be read, the browser setting needs to be changed.
Upwards arrow (Numeric code: ↑, Literal code: ↑), intersection (Numeric code: ∩, Literal code: ∩)
NAME | SYMBOL | NUMERIC CODE |
LITERAL CODE |
---|---|---|---|
For all | ∀ | ∀ | |
There exist | ∃ | ∃ | |
Not | ¬ | ¬ | |
And (meet) | ∧ | ∧ | |
Or (join) | ∨ | ∨ | |
Intersection | ∩ | ∩ | |
Union | ∪ | ∪ | |
Plus or minus | ± | ± | |
Times | × | × | |
Partial derivative | ∂ | ∂ | |
Solid dot | ∙ | None | |
Middle dot | · | · | |
Circle times | ⊗ | ⊗ | |
Circle plus | ⊕ | ⊕ | |
Division | ÷ | ÷ | |
Big product | ∏ | ∏ | |
Big sum | ∑ | ∑ | |
Square root | √ | √ | |
Integral | ∫ | ∫ |
NAME | SYMBOL | NUMERIC CODE |
LITERAL CODE |
---|---|---|---|
Contains the element | ∍ | None | |
Is a member of | ∈ | ∈ | |
Is not a member of | ∉ | ∉ | |
Less than | < | < | |
Greater than | > | > | |
Isomorphism | ≅ | ≅ | |
Perpendicular | ⊥ | ⊥ | |
Vertical bar | | | None | |
Less than or equal | ≤ | ≤ | |
Greater than or equal | ≥ | ≥ | |
Not equal to | ≠ | ≠ | |
Equivalent to | ≡ | ≡ | |
Approximately | ≈ | ≈ | |
Similar to | ∼ | ∼ | |
Empty set | ∅ | ∅ | |
Contains properly | ⊃ | ⊃ | |
Contains | ⊇ | ⊇ | |
Not included in | ⊄ | ⊄ | |
Proper subset of | ⊂ | ⊂ | |
Subset of | ⊆ | ⊆ |
NAME | SYMBOL | NUMERIC CODE |
LITERAL CODE |
---|---|---|---|
Left brace | [ | None | |
Right brace | ] | None | |
Left angle bracket | < | None | |
Right angle bracket | > | None | |
Left curley bracket | { | None | |
Right curley bracket | } | None | |
Double arrow | ↔ | ↔ | |
Left arrow | ← | ← | |
Up arrow | ↑ | ↑ | |
Right arrow | → | → | |
Down arrow | ↓ | ↓ | |
Double big arrow | ⇔ | ⇔ | |
Double left arrow | ⇐ | ⇐ | |
Double up arrow | ⇑ | ⇑ | |
Double right arrow | ⇒ | ⇒ | |
Double down arrow | ⇓ | ⇓ | |
Ellipsis | … | … | |
Left angle quote | « | « | |
Right angle quote | » | » |
NAME | SYMBOL | NUMERIC CODE |
LITERAL CODE |
---|---|---|---|
alpha | α | α | |
beta | β | β | |
gamma | γ | γ | |
delta | δ | δ | |
epsilon | ε | ε | |
zeta | ζ | ζ | |
eta | η | η | |
theta | θ | θ | |
iota | ι | ι | |
kappa | κ | κ | |
lambda | λ | λ | |
mu | μ | μ | |
nu | ν | ν | |
xi | ξ | ξ | |
omicron | ο | ο | |
pi | π | π | |
rho | ρ | ρ | |
sigma | σ | σ | |
tau | τ | τ | |
upsilon | υ | υ | |
phi | φ | φ | |
chi | χ | χ | |
psi | ψ | ψ | |
omega | ω | ω |
NAME | SYMBOL | NUMERIC CODE |
LITERAL CODE |
---|---|---|---|
Blank space | None | | |
Number sign | # | None | |
Percent | % | None | |
Ampersand | & | & | |
Prime | ′ | ′ | |
Double prime | ″ | ″ | |
Quote | None | " | |
Therefore | ∴ | ∴ | |
Overline | ‾ | ‾ | |
Infinity | ∞ | ∞ | |
Degree | ° | ° | |
Long dash | — | — | |
Aleph | ℵ | ℵ | |
Angle sign | ∠ | ∠ | |
Upside-down triangle | ∇ | ∇ | |
One-half | ½ | ½ | |
Cent sign | ¢ | ¢ | |
Registered sign | ® | ® | |
Copyright sign | © | © | |
Trademark sign | ™ | ™ |